List of Roman Emperors to 394 AD

« Tempus omnia revelat

Pretenders and usurpers in italics

Rule Emperor Reigned approx. Death Origin Notes
31BC-14 Caesar divi filius Augustus (Gaius Octavianus)   Natural causes Italia Father of the Principate.
14-37 Tiberius Claudius Nero   Natural causes Italia Adopted heir.
37-41 Gaius "Caligula" Caesar   Assasinated Italia (Antium) Adopted heir.
41-54 Claudius Nero Germanicus   Food poisoning Italia / Lugdunum Praetorian coup, uncle of Gaius.
54-68
68
68
Nero Claudius Caesar
pretender: C. Iulius Vindex
pretender: L. Clodius Macer
  Suicide Italia Adopted heir, son of Claudius' wife Agrippina.
68-69 Servius Sulpicius Galba   Executed Italia Revolted against Nero.
69 Marcus Salvius Otho   Suicide Italia (Ferentium) Pretorian coup, Etruscan.
69 Aulus Vitellius Germanicus   Executed Italia Elected by army.
69-79 Titus Flavius Vespasianus   Natural causes Italia (Falacrinae) Military coup.
79-81 Titus Flavius Vespasianus   Natural causes (malaria) Italia Son of Vespasianus.
81-96
89
Titus Flavius Domitianus
usurper: L. Antonius Saturninus
  Assasinated Italia Son of Vespasianus.
96-98 Marcus Cocceius Nerva   Natural causes (apoplexy) Italia / Umbria (Narnia) Elected by Senate.
98-117 Marcus Ulpius Traianus   Natural causes Baetica (Italica) Adopted.
117-138 Publius Aelius Hadrianus   Natural causes Baetica (Italica) Adopted.
138-161 Titus Aurelius Antoninus "Pius"   Natural causes Italia (Lanuvium) Adopted.
161-180
161-166
175
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
Lucius Aurelius Verus
usurper: Avidius Cassus
  Natural causes Italia (Roma) Adopted.
180-192 Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus 15 years Assasinated Italia (Roma) Son of M. Aurelius.
192-193 Publius Helvetius Pertinax 2 months Assasinated Italia (Alba Pompeia) Praetorian coup.
193 Marcus Didius Severus Iulianus 2 months Assasinated Italia (Mediolanum) Bought the Empire from Praetorians.
193-211
193-194
193-197
Lucius Septimius Severus
usurper: Lucius Pescennius Niger
usurper: Didius Clodius Septimus Albinus
17 years 2 months Natural causes
Killed in battle
Killed in battle
Africa (Leptis Magna) Start of military dictatorship.
211-217
211
M. A. Antoninus "Caracalla" (Septimus Bassianus)
Publius Septimius Geta
19 years
2 years 3 months
Assasinated
Assasinated
Punic-syrian (Lugdunum) Sons of Severus.
217-218 Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus
(with son Diadumenianus)
1 year 2 months Assasinated Mauretania (Caesarea) Preatorian coup.
218-222 M. A. Antoninus "Elagabalus" (Varius Avitius)
usurper: Seleucus
usurper: Uranius Antoninus
usurper: Gellius Maximus
usurper: Verus
3 years 9 months Assasinated
Syria (Emesa) Puppet emperor; state ruled by his mother Julia Bassiana and grandmother Julia Maesa.
222-235 Severus Alexander (Bassianus Alexianus)
usurper: Taurinus
13 years Assasinated
Accident
Syria (Arca Caesarea) Puppet emperor; regent Julia Mamaea.
235-238 Iulius Verus Maximinus I "Thrax"
usurpers: Magnus and Alexander
3 years 3 months Assasinated Moesia Military coup, state in anarchy.
238
238
Marcus Antonius Gordianus I Sempronianus
Marcus Antonius Gordianus II Sempronianus
3 weeks
3 weeks
Suicide
Killed in battle
Asia (Gordion)
Africa (Carthago)
Tax revolt in Africa, Civil war.
238
238
Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus
Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus
3 months
3 months
Executed
Executed
Italia
Italia
Elected by Senate, civil war.
238-244
240
Marcus Antonius Gordianus III
pretender: Sabinianus
  Assasinated Africa (Carthago)
Africa (Carthago)
Puppet emperor, praetorian rule.
244-249
247-249
248

Marcus Iulius Filippus I "Arabs"
(with son Filippus II)
usurpers: Pacatianus and Iotapianus
5 years 6 months Killed in battle Arabia Military coup.
249-251
251
250
250
Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius
(with sons Herennius Etruscus and Hostilius)
usurper: Titus Iulius Priscus
usurper: Iulius Valens Licinianus

1 year 9 months Killed in battle Pannonia (Budalia) Military coup by Pannonian legions. Made sacrifice to State Gods compulsory.
251-3
253
253
Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus
(with son C. V. Volusianus)
pretender: Uranius Antoninus

2 years Assasinated

Assasinated

Italia (Perusia)

Syria (Emesa)

From old etruscan family. Eastern empire revolted under priests of Baal.
253 Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus 3 months Assasinated Africa (Girba) Military coup.
253-260
253-268
260
260-261
261
261-262
Publius Licinius Cornelius Valerianus
Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus
usurper: Ingenuus, Regalianus
usurpers: Macrianus, Quietus
usurpers: Valens, Piso, Ballista
usurpers: Mussius Aemilianus, Memor
6 years
15 years
Captured in battle (Persians)
Assasinated (conspiracy of praetorians, Claudius and Aurelianus)
Illyria?
Illyria?
Elected by army.
Son of Valerianus. After Valerian's death, the empire dissolves.

260-269
269
269
269-271
271-274
273-274
274
GALLIC EMPIRE
Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus
usurper: Laelianus
Marcus Aurelius Marius
Marcus Piavonius Victorinus
Caius Pius Esuvius Tetricus I
(with son Tetricus II)
usurper: Faustinus

9 years 8 months

2 weeks
2 years
3 years

Assasinated

Assasinated
Assasinated
Natural causes
Natural causes
  Gallic Empire forms a breakaway state.

260-267
270-272
PALMYRENE EMPIRE
Odenathus (Odainath)
Zenobia (with son Septimius Wahballath)


3 years

Assasinated
Natural causes

Palmyra
Palmyra
Secessionist state

268-270
270
CENTRAL EMPIRE
Marcus Aurelius Claudius II "Gothicus"
Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus

1 year 5 months
3 months

Natural causes (plague)
Suicide

Illyria
Illyria
Military coup.
270-275
271-271
275
Lucius Domitius Aurelianus
usurpers: Domitianus, Urbanus, Septimius
regent: Ulpia Severina
5 years

3 months
Assasinated Dacia Sol Invictus (Mithras) as state religion. Empress Ulpia Severina ruled after Aurelian's death.
275-276 Marcus Claudius Tacitus 7 months Assasinated Italia (Baiae) Elected by Senate.
276 Marcus Annius Florianus 2 months Assasinated Italia Half-brother of Tacitus.
276-282
280
280-281
Marcus Aurelius Probus
usurper: Saturninus
usurpers: Proculus and Bonosus
6 years Assasinated Illyria (Sirmium) Military coup.
282-283
283-284
283-285
Marcus Aurelius Carus
Marcus Aurelius Numerianus
Marcis Aurelius Carinus

10 months
1 year 2 months
1 year 8 months
Natural causes?
Assasinated
Assasinated
Narbonensis (Narbo) Praetorian coup.

284-305
286-305
297
TETRARCHY
Gaius Valerius Diocletianus Iovius (Diocles)
Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius
usurper: L. Domitius Domitianus


20 years 5 months
19 years 1 months

Natual causes
Suicide

Dalmatia
Illyria (Sirmium)
Egypt
Revision of the army and provincial system. Bagaudae revolt in Gallia (led by Amandus), donatist uprising in Africa.

286-293
293-297
BRITISH EMPIRE
Mausaeus Carausius
Allectus

 
Assasinated
Killed in battle

Belgica (Menapi)

Britain and Bononia revolted.

305-306
306-307
WESTERN EMPIRE
Flavius Valerius Constantius I "Chlorus"
Flavius Valerius Severus II

1 year 2 months
8 months

Natural causes
Executed

Moesia (Naissos)
Invaded Britain and crushed the secessionists.
306-312
308-309
M. Aurelius Valerius Maxentius
usurper: Lucius Domitius Alexander
6 years Killed in battle Italia (Praeneste)
Africa
Pretorian coup in Rome. Maxentius lost to Constantine at Saxa Rubra (28.10.312)

305-311
310-313
EASTERN EMPIRE
Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus
Maximinus II Daia

6 years
4 years 9 months

Natural causes
Natural causes

Dacia (Serdica)
Persecutions of christians.
308-324 Valerius Licinianus Licinius
(with Martianus)
16 years Executed
Executed
Dacia Christians purged from the army.
307-337 Flavius Valerius Constantinus I 30 years Natural causes Moesia (Naissos) Military coup. Patron of christianity, deprived pagan cults of their wealth. Christus as state religion in 324.
337-340
337-350
350-353
337-361
350
355
Flavius Claudius Constantinus II
Flavius Iulius Constans I
usurper: Flavius Magnus Magnentius
Flavius Iulius Constantius II
usurpers: Nepotianus and Vetranio
usurper: Silvanus
2 years 6 months
12 years 6 months

24 years 1 month
Killed in battle
Assasinated
Suicide
Natural causes
Gallia (Arelate)

Britannia
Realm divided between Constantine's three quarreling sons.
360-363 Flavius Claudius Julianus 3 years 3 months Assasinated   Pagan revival.
363-364 Flavius Jovianus 7 months Accidental   Persecution of pagans and burning of libraries. Non-christians purged from the army.
364-375
364-378
Flavius Valentinianus I
Flavius Valens
11 years 8 months Natural causes Illyria (Cibalae)
Illyria (Cibalae)
Severe persecutions against philosophers.
367-383 Flavius Gratianus 16 years Assasinated Illyria (Sirmium) Gave up the title of Pontifex Maximus.
375-392
383-388
Flavius Valentinianus II
usurper: Magnus Maximus
16 years Assasinated
Pannonia (Aquincum)
Hispania
Child-emperor.
379-395
392-394
Flavius Theodosius I
usurper: Arbogast (with Flavius Eugenius)
16 years Natural causes Hispania (Cauca)
All other religions (except judaism) made illegal. Persecutions of heretics, disagreement with Church dogma outlawed.