Timeline of Roma Resurgens Alternate History

Alternate history entries are marked with red text.

Roman Empire - the Principate (35 BCE - 235 CE)

Date Emperor Roman West Roman East Culture Meanwhile in Asia
30 BC
27 BCE Gaius Iulius Caesar Augustus, Son of God, adopted son of Julius Caesar, first emperor. (¥) 27 BCE Illyria is pacified and made a province. Roman borders expand to the Danube river.     Accession of Liu Xin, emperor Ai of Han.
20 BC
15 BCE Raetia is conquered by Germanicus and Drusus.      
10 BC
      Accession of emperor Han Pingdi.
1 CE

6 Conquest and annexation of Moesia.

6 Client king Herodes Archelaus of Judea is dismissed by emperor Augustus after an appeal from his own population. Judea becomes a Roman province. A census indicates that there are 4,973,000 Roman citizens. Liu Xin completes his star catalogue of 1080 stars, as well as fixing the year at 365.25016 days long (11 minutes longer than the modern year) by calculating the synodic month.
14 Tiberius Claudius Nero, adopted heir of Augustus. (¥)

15-24 Berber rebellion in Africa and Numidia led by Tacfarinas.

16 Germanicus pacifies Germania Magna to the Elbe and recovers the lost eagles of Varus' legions.

17 Tiberius annexes Cappadocia. Publication of the Ab Urbe condita ("History of Rome since its foundation") in 142 volumes by Livius. Famine hits China. Some turn to cannibalism. Emperor Ruzi Ying is dethroned; Wang Mang usurps power and initiates the short-lived Xin Dynasty.

20 Illyria is divided into Dalmatia and Pannonia.

21 Revolt of the Aedui tribe is suppressed. Roman law replaces Celtic customs in Gaul.


The manufacture of pens and metal writing tools begins in Rome.

Greek geographer Strabo publishes his Geography, covering the world known to the Romans and the Greeks.

Liu Xuan, leader of insurgents against the Xin, proclaims himself emperor against Wang Mang. Defeat of the Xin and restoration of the Han dynasty in China.

Luoyang becomes the capital of the Houhan (Later Han Dynasty).

37 Germanicus Julius Caesar, nephew of Tiberius (¥)  

34-37 Roman intervention in Armenia.

38 Anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria.

Crucifixion of Jesus in Judea. The Kushan Empire is founded in India.

40 Client states of Thracia and Noricum are annexed.

43 Roman conquest of Britain begins.

44 Client kingdom of Mauretania is annexed.

44 Island of Rhodes returns to the Roman Empire.

46 Lycian League joins the Roman Empire.

A census shows that there are over 6,000,000 Roman citizens. City of Rome has a population of one million.

The Vietnamese Trung sisters rebel against the rule of the emperor Guangwu of Han. They are repressed by general Ma Yuan in Tonkin. Vietnam is designated as a province of Houhan.

The Xiongnu empire dissolves. Houhan restores Chinese domination of Inner Mongolia.

55 Nero Julius Caesar, son of Germanicus (¥) 50 Client kingdom of Cottian Alps joins the Roman Empire.

54 Rome annexes Aden (Yemen) to protect the maritime route between Alexandria and India.

56-63 War between Rome and Parthia over Armenian succession. General Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo drives Parthians out of Armenia and sets up Tiridates I as a ruler.

Hero of Alexandria invents a steam turbine.

Diogenes the Explorer discovers the African Great Lakes.

Satyricon by Petronius is published.

Yuejue Shu, the first known gazetteer of China is published.

Accession of emperor Han Mingdi. Buddhism is introduced to China.


61 Druidic stronghold at Ynys Môn is destroyed by general Suetonius Paulinus. Queen Boudicca of the Iceni is defeated in the Battle of Watling Street.

64 City of Rome is destroyed in a great fire.

67 Sardinia becomes a Roman province.

66-70 Taxation and religious tensions provoke a Jewish revolt in Judea. The Zealots take Jerusalem and the Sicarii capture the fortress of Masada. General Titus Flavius Vespasianus is sent with legions to crush the rebellion.

69 Vespasianus lays siege to Jerusalem. The city is captured a year later by his son Titus. The Jewish Temple in Jerusalem is destroyed and the Sanhedrin is abolished.

Hero of Alexandria writes Metrica, Mechanics, and Pneumatics.

Seneca proclaims the equality of all men, including slaves.

Dioscorides writes his De Materia Medica, a treatise on the methodical treatment of disease by use of medicine.

White Horse Temple, the first Buddhist temple in China, is founded.
68 Drusus Julius Caesar, son of Nero. (¥)

76 Wales is finally occupied by Sextus Julius Frontinus.

79 Roman invasion of Scotland, commanded by general Gnaeus Julius Agricola.

70 Expedition of Septimius Flaccus reaches southern Egypt (Sudan). Ze-Hakèlé becomes king of Aksum.

71 Mithraism and Jewish Christianity spread to Rome from Asia.

73 Masada, last outpost of Jewish rebels, is captured by Roman forces.

Cuneiform writing is abandoned in Mesopotamia.

Distillation is discovered in Rome.

Naturalis Historia is published by Plinius the Elder.

The Battle of Yiwulu between the Xiongnu and the Han Dynasty ends in decisive Han victory.

Accession of emperor Han Zhangdi.

81 Nero Agrippa Caesar (¥)

84 Roman victory over Caledonii at Mons Graupius. Construction of the Limes is begun.

89 Revolt of Saturninus in Germania Superior is crushed by general Marcus Ulpius Trajanus.

86 Dacian wars begin when king Duras orders his troops to attack Roman Moesia. Forces under general Cornelius Fuscus are ambushed and defeated. Almost all of the soldiers from Legio V Alaudae are lost and general himself is killed in battle.

89 Uneasy peace with Dacian king Decebalus.

Colosseum is inaugurated in Rome.

The Eifel Aqueduct is constructed to bring water 95 km from the Eifel region to Colonia Agrippina.

Acts of the Apostles are written.

The philosopher Wang Chong claims that all phenomena have material causes. He correctly theorizes the nature of the water cycle; he is also the first in Chinese history to mention use of the chain pump.

Collected works of Kong Fuzi (Confucius) are canonized.


96 Assassination of Nero Agrippa, end of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty. Accession of Marcus Cocceius Nerva and 98 Marcus Ulpius Trajanus. (¥) 92 German confederation of Marcomanni are defeated at the Danube.

92 Legio XXI Rapax is destroyed by the Sarmatians in Pannonia.

98 Canal between the Nile and the Red Sea is reopened.

Curia Julia, the meeting place of the Roman Senate, is rebuilt and rededicated.

Tacitus publishes his Germania.

Continuing his conquest of the Tarim basin, general Ban Chao defeats the Kushan led by Kanishka. Han government re-establishes the Protectorate of the Western Regions. Gan Ying establish regular relations with the Parthians.

Schism in Buddhism creates a new, popular religion in India called mahâyâna.

  The Roman army consists of 300,000 men.

101 Second Dacian War against Decebalus.

105-106 Trajanus recruits additional legions and starts another expedition against Dacia. Romans capture Sarmizegetusa; Dacia becomes a Roman province.

106 Rome annexes Nabatean Arabia, with Petra as a provincial capital.

Markets of Trajanus are opened in Rome.

Epictetus publishes his Discourses.

Parallel Lives of 50 biographies published by Plutarkhos.

Paper is used by the general populace in China by this date.

Fourth Buddhist Council in Kashmir.

Accession of emperors Han Shangdi and Han Andi.

117 On his death bed, Trajan adopts Publius Aelius Hadrianus and designates him as his successor. (¥) 115 Revolt in Eboracum, Britain.

113-117 Eastern War: Osroes of Parthia violates the treaty with Rome; Trajanus marches east and defeats Parthians. Armenia is annexed, Osroene becomes a vassal kingdom of the Roman Empire.

115-117 Kitos War: Jews in Egypt and Cyrene ignite a revolt against Roman rule, which spreads to Cyprus, Judea and Mesopotamia. Hundreds of thousands are massacred by Jewish militias. Alexandria is burned down.

Of illustrious men published by Suetonius.

Forum of Trajanus constructed in Rome by the Syrian architect Apollodorus of Damascus.


121 Hadrian's Wall is built in Northern Britain. Territories in Scotland are abandoned.

125 Imperial lands are distributed to small farmers.

120 Sarmatian people called Roxolani invade Dacia and nothern Moesia. They are soundly defeated.

The Temple of Venus and Roma is built in Rome.

Satires of Juvenalis are published.

The philosopher Carpocrates rejects ownership of private property as being un-Christian.

Accession of emperor Han Shundi.

Zhang Heng invents a hydraulic-powered armillary sphere.


138 Titus Aurelius Antoninus Pius, adopted heir of Hadrianus. (¥)

131 Imperial government is reorganized and the role of the Senate is downplayed. Administrative positions are entrusted to the equestrian order.

136 War against the Suebi in Germania.

131 Hadrianus builds the city of Aelia Capitolina on the location of Jerusalem, the latter being ruined from the revolt of 70 CE.

132-136 The messianic Jewish leader Simon bar Kokhba starts a war of liberation for Judea. The revolt is eventually crushed and jews are driven to exile from Judea. An altar to Juppiter is erected on the site of the Temple in Jerusalem.

Hadrianic University of rhetoric, law and philosophy, the Athenaeum, opens in Rome.  

140 The export of olive oil from Hispania Baetica to Rome peaks.

143 Revolt of the Brigantes tribe of Britannia is supressed.

147 Festivals to celebrate the 900th anniversary of the founding of Rome begin.


142 Municipal doctors are named throughout the Roman Empire. Roman doctor Antyllus performs the first arteriotomy.

Marcion arrives in Rome. He proclaims that the Old Testament is incompatible with Christianity. Schism in Christianity creates a new sect, Marcionism.

Ptolemaios completes his astronomical treatise Almagest.

Gospel of Peter is written in Syria.

The chinese Taoist alchemist Wei Boyang is the first to describe an early form of gunpowder solution.

Accession of emperors Han Chongdi, Han Zhidi and Han Huandi.


150 The Roman army consists of 400,00 men in 35 legions and 140 auxiliary units.

152-153 Minor uprisings against Roman rule in Mauretania and Egypt.

151 Mytilene and Smyrna are destroyed by an earthquake.

154 Eupator, king of Bosphorus, pays tribute to Rome due to the threat posed by the Alani tribes.

155 Emperor Antonius Pius starts an abortive new war against the Parthian king Vologaesus, which ends in an inconclusive peace.

The earliest atlas, Geographia by Ptolemaios, is made.

Charismatic Christian movement called Montanism is founded in Hierapolis, Phrygia.

161 Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Verus. (¥)

165 Antonine Plague breaks out after the Roman army returns from Parthia. The Empire is significantly depopulated.

166-180 German confederation of Marcomanni invade Pannonia and sack Aquileia, starting the long and costly Marcomannic Wars.

169 Northern African Moors invade Mauretania and Hispania.

162-166 New war breaks out between Rome and Parthia. Statius Priscus reconquers Armenia; Artaxata is ruined. Avidius Cassius crosses the Euphrates and captures Parthian capital of Ctesiphon, which is returned to the Parthians after the end of the war. Seleuceia on Tigris is destroyed and abandoned.

Manufacture of soap begins in Rome.

Arrianus publishes Indica, a work on India and its people.


A Roman envoy sent out by Marcus Aurelius arrives by sea to Han capital of Luoyang and is greeted by emperor Huandi.
  172 Marcus Aurelius, as part of the pact signed with the Marcomanni, imports them to occupy areas of the empire that had been depopulated by the plague.

171 Mesopotamia becomes a Roman province.

175 Revolt of the legate Avidius Cassius in Syria.

179 Abgar IX the Great becomes king of Edessa.

Montanism spreads through the empire.

Confucian scholars try to ensure their capacity in the royal court of China. They are massacred by the eunuchs.

Han troops suffer a crushing defeat against a confederacy of Central Asian tribes led by the Xianbei.

180 Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, son of Marcus Aurelius. (¥)

180 The praetorian prefect Tarutenius Paternus achieves a decisive victory against the germanic tribes. Bohemia and Marcomannia are conquered.

186 Tax revolt in Gaul, led by Maternus.

180 Goths migrate south.

Mithraism becomes popular religion in the Roman army.

Another plague decimates the Roman empire.

Agrarian crisis in Han China. Yellow Turban Rebellion is instigated by secret Taoist sects, leading to the dissolution of the Han empire.


192 Commodus is murdered in a coup. End of the Antonine Dynasty. Senator Publius Helvetius Pertinax takes up the purple.

193 Marcus Didius Severus Julianus

193 Lucius Septimius Severus. (¥)

190 A part of Rome burns.

192-197 Years of the Five Emperors. Praetorian Guards murder Pertinax and install Didius Julianus after hefty bribes. Septimius Severus is proclaimed emperor by the army in Illyricum, Pescennius Niger in the East and Clodius Albinus in Britain. After a bloody civil war, Septimius Severus triumphs. Praetorian Guards are disbanded. Albinus is defeated in the battle of Lugdunum.

196 Hadrian's Wall in Britain is partly destroyed.

194-195 Pescennius Niger, competitor of Septimius Severus for the Roman Empire, is defeated in three successive battles and killed outside Antioch by Severus' troops. The province of Syria is divided.

197 Septimius Severus declares a military dictatorship.

Galenos publishes is medical manuals The Art of Curing and Pharmacologia.

A Christian council is held in Edessa.

Luoyang is burned and plundered by the rebel forces of Dong Zhuo. The Han court is moved to Xi'an and the Han Emperor is reduced to a mere pawn in the hands of the warlords.

Syrian Christians establish a community in Kerala, India.

The Xiongnu Federation crosses the Great Wall and establishes itself in Shaanxi province.


205 Hadrian's wall is restored after heavy raids by Caledonian tribes.

208 Septimius Severus launches a military campaign against Caledonian tribes.

200 Kingdom of Osroene adopts Christianity as its official religion.

203 Byzantium is rebuilt by Septimius Severus.

Talmudic law is created by rabbi Judah ha-Nasi in Galilee.

Conversions to Christianity are forbidden by an imperial decree.

Warlord Cao Cao defeats Yuan Shao in the battle of Guandu and the Wuhuan tribes at the Battle of White Wolf Mountain.

Gongsun Kang, a Chinese warlord of Liaodong, establishes the Daifang Commandery in northern Korea.

Zhou Yu and Liu Bei defeat Cao Cao at the Battle of Red Cliffs.


211 Ascension of Septimus Bassianus, son of Septimius Severus, as Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, nicknamed "Caracalla". (¥)

217 Assassination of Caracalla, usurpation of Marcus Opellius Macrinus, a Moor. Women of the Severan dynasty install Varius Avitius "Elagabalus" as emperor. (♀☼)

212 Constitutio Antoniniana: Emperor Caracalla decrees that all freemen throughout the Roman Empire are to become Roman citizens.

213-214 Caracalla defends the northern frontier against the Alemanni tribes. Defences of Rhaetia are reinforced with an uninterrupted stone wall.

214 The kingdom of Osroene becomes a Roman province.

215 Population of Alexandria, Egypt is massacred after a popular revolt.

216 Rome annexes Armenia.

Caracalla introduces a new coin, the Antoninianus. The weight of this coin is a mere 1/50 of a pound. Copper disappears gradually, and by the middle of the third century, with Rome's economy in crisis, the Antonianus will be the only official currency.

Baths of Caracalla are completed.

Cao Cao, former prime minister of the Han dynasty, is given ten cities as his territories and the title Wei Gong (noble of Wei). This later becomes the Kingdom of Wei.

Civil war in China continues. Cao Cao controls the Huang He basin and north of the country. General Sun Quan seizes southernmost China. Liu Bei controls the province of Sichuan.

222 Elagabalus is assassinated, along with his mother, Julia Soemias. He is succeeded by child-emperor Alexander Severus. Real power behind the throne is his aunt, Julia Avita Mamaea, and a cabal of senators. 220 Usurpers: Seleucus, Uranius Antoninus, Gellius Maximus and Verus.

220 Goths invade Asia Minor and the Balkans.

224-228 Ardashir I defeats the Arsacid kings, destroying the Parthian state and establishing the persian dynasty of Sassanids.

Christianity spreads in the Roman empire.

Ammonius Saccas renews Greek philosophy by creating Neoplatonism.

Last Han emperor Xiandi abdicates, symbolizing the end of the Empire. Cao Pi succeeds his father Cao Cao as ruler of the Kingdom of We.

Merchants from the Roman Empire arrive at kingdom of Wu.

235 Pressure on Rome by Goths, Sassanids, Quadi and Alemanni increases. Following a defeat by the Germans, Alexander Severus and his mother Julia Mamaea, are massacred near Mongontiacum by his soldiers. Severan dynasty ends. Barbarian general Maximinus Thrax usurps the purple; the Era of the Warring Empires begin. 230-235 Ardashir I invades Roman Mesopotamia, forcing emperor Alexander Severus to travel east to fight him off. Origenes of Alexandria founds a school of Christian theology in Caesarea. Relics of St. Thomas are brought to Edessa from India. Heraclas, Patriarch of Alexandria, becomes the first Pope of the Catholic Church. Period of Three Kingdoms in China.

Roman Empire - the Crisis of the Third Century (235 - 280 CE)

Date Ruler(s) Roman West Roman East Culture Asia
238 Accession of emperors Gordianus I, Gordianus II, Marcus Clodius Pupienus, Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus and Gordianus III. (¥)

236 African legions proclaim Gordianus I and his son Gordianus II to be co-emperors. The Senate appoints a twenty-man committee to co-ordinate operations against Maximinus.

238 In North Africa, Legio III Augusta, is dissolved. Until its reconstitution in 253, Africa is defended by auxiliary troops only.

237 Ardashir I of Persia renews his attacks on the Roman province of Mesopotamia.

238 In spite of the payment of a tribute, the Romans fail to persuade the Goths and the Carpians to withdraw from Moesia. Goths cross Danube and devastate the Empire up to the border with Anatolia.

Origenes publishes the Old Testament in five languages. A Chinese expeditionary force discovers the island of Taiwan.

244 Gordianus III is assassinated by his praetorian prefect, who succeedes him as emperor Marcus Julius Philippus I Arabs (with his son Philippus II). ()

249 Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius is declared Emperor by the Moesian armies. (¥)

240 Quadi conquer Bohemia.

240 Revolt of Sabinianus in Africa against Gordianus III.

247 Millenial celebrations are held in Rome.

248 Revolts of the generals Marcus Fulvius Rufus Jotapianus and Tiberius Claudius Marinus Pacatianus against Philippus Arabs are put down by senator Decius.

240 Persians destroy Hatra. Ardashir I is succeeded by Shapur I as šāhānšāh of Persia.

242 Gordianus III evacuates the Cimmerian cities in the Bosphorus, as the territory is now controlled by the Ostogoths.

243 Shapur I is defeated by Gordianus III in the battle of Resaena.

244 Armenia is lost to Persians.

Prophet Mani starts to preach his doctrine, Manicheanism, in Persia.

Plotinus founds his Neoplatonis schools in Rome.

Christian Councils of Arabia are held in Bostra.

Christians and Neoplatonists engage each other in fierce literary contests.

Fall of the Kushan Empire. Parts of it are annexed by Shapur I of Persia.

Sima Yi takes complete control of Cao Wei by executing his political rival Cao Shuang and his clan, marking the start of Sima family rule, which eventually gave rise to the Jin Dynasty.

Period of the Thirty Tyrants in the Roman empire. Warlords in the border regions are proclaimed emperor by their armies in order to stop the barbarian invaders.

250-251 Goths, Franks and Alemanni invade the Roman Empire. Emperor Decius is killed in the Battle of Abrittus.

253 Publius Licinius Cornelius Valerianus and his son Gallienus (Ω) become emperors in Italy. Establishment of the Valerian dynasty.

259 Gallic Empire secedes under Marcus Cassianus Latinius Postumus. He is recognized as an emperor in Gaul, Hispania, Germania and Britain.

250 The Plague spreads from Egypt to other parts of the Empire. Kingdom of Aksum takes over the commerce on the Red Sea.

256 Shapur I overruns Mesopotamia and Syria. Dura-Europos is destroyed. Ostrogoths take over Dacia and invade Greece and Asia Minor.

259 Emperor Valerianus is captured by Shapur I and is later killed in captivity.

Valerianic persecution of Christians begins: his edict orders bishops and priests to sacrifice according to the official rituals, and prohibits Christians, under penalty of death, from meeting at the tombs of their deceased.

The amount of silver in Roman currency falls below 10%.

268 Death of Gallienus, accession of Marcus Aurelius Claudius II "Gothicus". () 260 Gallienus reinforces the military and establishes a new mobile force supported by the cavalry, which becomes the pivot of the Roman army. The army's headquarters are established in Mediolanum. Invasions in the Balkans are repulsed by general Aurelianus. 268 Accession of emperors Marcus Aurelius Marius and Piavonius Victorinus (former general of Gallienus) in Gaul.

260 Shapur I destroys Caesarea Mazaca in Asia Minor. Syria, Egypt and Palestine break off from the Roman Empire to form the arabian-controlled Palmyrene Empire under Odenathus.

Gallienus adopts Neoplatonism as the official philosophy. Edict of Toleration extends to all religions inside the Empire. His patronship brings about an era of renaissance in Roman art and philosophy.

The Wei Kingdom conquers the kingdom of Shu Han, one of the Chinese Three Kingdoms.

Sun Hao succeeds Sun Xiu as ruler of the Chinese Kingdom of Wu.

Wei Yuandi abdicates, ending the kingdom of Wei in China.

261-262 Usurpers: Ingenuus, Regalianus, Macrianus, Quietus, Valens, Piso, Mussius Aemilianus, Memor.

263 The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus is destroyed.


270 Lucius Domitius Aurelianus ()

275 Empress Dowager Ulpia Severina acts as a regent.

275-276 Marcus Claudius Tacitus, Marcus Annius Florianus (¥)

276 Marcus Aurelius Probus ()

271 Alemanni are repulsed from Italy. Dacia is finally abandoned to the Goths.

274 Aurelianus issues and important reform of Roman currency.

278 Probus conquers the Franks and Alemanni. Agri Decumates is abandoned.

270 Accession of emperors Tetricus I and Tetricus II in Gaul. Rebellions by Domitianus, Amandus and Faustinus.

275 Germanic peoples revolt against Gallic Empire; they pillage and depopulate large areas of Roman Germania. Frankish Confederation is born.

270 Plague of Cyprianus causes widespread manpower shortages.

272 Aurelianus reconquers the Palmyran Empire, forcing empress Zenobia to flee to Persia. Rome forms an alliance with the kingdom of Aksum.

273 Sassanid Shah Bahram I succeeds Hormizd I.

276 Sassanid Shah Bahram II succeeds Bahram I.

Sol Invictus becomes the Highest God and official state religion in the Roman Empire. Sacrifice to the Emperor as a living god becomes compulsory act of deference and patriotism.

Prophet Mani dies in Persia, after preaching a religious belief that combines Zoroastrian dualism with Christian theology and Buddhist thought - stirring conflict with the adherents of all three religions.

A magnetic compass is first used in China.
280-283 Usurpers: Julius Saturninus, Carus, Numerianus

280 Probus defeats Vandals, Burgundians and Alans.

284 Dardania becomes a separate Roman province.

280 Bonosus and Proculus are proclaimed emperors in Germania and Gaul. 282-283 War against Persia: Bahram II is defeated, Ctesiphon is captured by the Romans. Reign of Patriarch Theonas of Alexandria. Establishment of the Coptic Christian Calendar. The Kingdom of Wu is dissolved by Jin, finally ending the Three Kingdoms period in the history of China.

Roman Empire - the diverging Dominate (280 - 420 CE)

Date Ruler(s) Roman West Roman East Culture Asia

284 Accession of emperors Gaius Valerius Diocletianus Jovius. () He formalizes the concept of joint rule or Diarchy, and adopts Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius as his co-ruler.

284 Peasant revolt of the Bagaudae in Gaul is crushed by co-emperor Herculius. 286 Carausius, commander of the British Fleet, is proclaimed emperor in Britain. 287 Peace treaty is signed between Persia and Rome. Tiridates III is istalled as king of Armenia. To distribute the task of defending and administering the empire and to assure an orderly succession, Jovius divides the empire in four Praetorian Praefectures. Jin Hui Di succeedes Jin Wu Di as emperor of China.
293 Beginning of the short-lived Tetrarchy: Jovius and Herculius appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as caesars and co-emperors. () 293 Caesar Constantius Chlorus restores the Germanian frontier. Franks and Frisians accept Roman rule. 293 Carausius is succeeded by Allectus as emperor in Britain until 296, when the islands are reconquered by general Asclepiodotus.

291 Emperor Jovius signs peace treaties with Aksum and Nubia, relinquishing control of Upper Egypt to Aksum.

293 Sassanid Shah Narses succeedes Bahram II and Bahram III and defeats Roman forces outside Ctesiphon. Peace treaty is signed between Persia and Rome.

297 Tax rebellion in Egypt, led by Domitius Domitianus and Aurelius Achilleus.

Arabia Petraea is converted to Christianity by Syrian monks.

Christians are expelled from the Roman army and bureucracy.

The Baths of Diocletianus are built in Rome.


305 Jovius and Herculius retire from office and are succeeded by Constantius Chlorus and Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus. Flavius Severus II and Maximinus Daia.

306 Death of Constantius Chlorus. He is replaced by Severus II and his son Constantine.

306-319 War of the Eight Caesars. Several warlords compete for the imperial purple in a destructive civil war: former emperor Herculius, Galerius, his successors Maximinus Daia and Licinius, Flavius Severus II, Constantinus (son of Constantius Chlorus), Domitius Alexander and Valerius Maxentius (son of Maximianus Herculius). Maxentius declares secessionist regime in Italy, Constantine is declared emperor in Britannia by forces of his father, Constantius Chlorus.

308 Emperor Severus II is killed in battle against Maxentius. He is replaced by Licinius as commander of the Danube legions.

300 Tiridates III of Armenia converts to Christianity.

301 Edict of Maximum Prices is issued.


Emperor Galerius launches the first major persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, instigated by proconsul and high priest Hierocles.  

310 Galerius perishes to a terrible disease. He is succeeded by Valerius Licinianus Licinius and Maximinus II Daia in the East. ()

312 Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, emperor in the West. (¥)

311 Maxentius reconquers Africa from Lucius Domitius Alexander, ally of Constantine.

312 Constantinus is defeated at the Milvian Bridge, and the western part of the Tetrarchy dissolves. Maxentius allies himself with Maximinus II Daia, emperor of the East, to gain legitimacy.

319 Licinius is defeated by joint forces of Maxentius and Maximinus.

315 A program of assistance to the poor is established in the Roman Empire, to compete with Christian charities.

318 Fierce persecution in Egypt forces many Christians to flee south to the relative safety of Aksum or take up monastic life in the desert. An era of dissension breaks up the Catholic Church.

Donatist schism in African Christianity.

Basilica Nova, the new official court is finished in Rome.

Arius preaches of the human nature of Jesus and is condemned as a heretic by pope Alexandros of Alexandria.

Jin Huai Di, emperor of the Jin dynasty, is captured by the Xiongnu when Luoyang is sacked.

Xiongnu sack Chang'an. Emperor Jin Mindi surrenders. End of the Western Jin dynasty. China is irretrievably divided.


322 Maximinus is succeeded by Aurelius Valerius Valens in the East. His son Galerius Valerius Maximus receives minor role as a caesar, but is soon deposed.


320 The Franks are defeated by Valerius Maxentius, assuring twenty years of peace in Germania.

323 Valerius Valens defeats the Sarmatians and claims the title of Sarmaticus Maximus.


321 Christian Catholic churches are deprived of all their properties and all their writings are ordered to be burned. Persecuted Christians emigrate to Armenia and Persia.

322 Death of Maximinus II Daia. Christians in Syria and Egypt revolt under Flavius Julius Anastasius.

326 King Ezana of Aksum converts to Christianity.

Christianity is introduced to Colchis, present-day Georgia.

Dies Solis Invicti is proclaimed as the day of the rest. Introduction of the seven-day week.


337 Death of Maxentius. He is succeeded by his son Valerius Romulus I. (¥)

332 Valerius Valens defeats the Visigoths. The Goths become Roman allies and protect the borders along the Danube against the Huns.

333 Christian usurpers Julius Constantius and Flavius Dalmatius in Gaul.

336 Most of Dacia and Moesia is reconqered by emperor Valens.

330 Kingdom of Aksum, greatly strenghtened by the recent influx of Coptic Christian refugees, extends its area of control to the west. King Ezana defeats the Nobates, and destroys the kingdom of Meroë.

337 Shapur II of Sassanid Persia begins a war with the Roman Empire.

Manicheanism flourishes in Africa and Hispania.

New temples to Sol Invictus are built to Treverorum, Mediolanum and Nicomedia.

  340 Franks and Alans are resettled in Gaul.

344 Battle of Singara: the Roman army is barely defeated by Shapur II.

347 Kingdom of Aksum adopts Coptic Christianity as its official religion.

Judas Didymus establishes Christian church in Malayalam, Kerala.

Neoplatonist philosopher Julius Maternus publishes his extensive compilation of astrology and divination, Mathesis.



350 Death of Romulus I. He is succeeded by Valerius Marcellinus in the West. (¥)

355 Valens is succeeeded by Flavius Claudius Julianus, also known as Julian the Philosopher, in the East. (Ω)


350-355 Death of Romulus provokes rebellion in the West. Usurpers Magnus Magnentius, Popilius Nepotianus and Claudius Silvanus are defeated and killed by Marcellinus.

356 Invading germanic tribes are defeated by magister peditum Flavius Barbato.

356 Constantius Ambrosius declares secessionist regime in Roman Britain.


350 Huns invade the Sassanid Empire. Jewish community in Palestine revolts against Roman rule.


358 An earthquake levels Nicaea.

Imperial Histories, covering the time from Augustus to 337 CE, are published by Aurelius Florianus.

Claudius Julianus studies Neoplatonism in Athens; he is later initiated into the Eleusian Mysteries.


361 Death of Marcellinus. Julianus becomes sole emperor.

363 Accession of Valerius Jovianus. He adopts two of his Illyrian colleagues, Valerius Valentinianus and Valerius Valens, as his successors.

364 Death of Jovianus, succession of Valerius Valentinianus I and Valerius Valens II. (†)

360 Saxons start raiding Britain.

367 Combined forces of Saxons, Irish and Caledonians devastate Roman Britain.

367 Co-emperor Valens II is baptized by Eudoxius of Antioch, becoming the first Christian caesar in Rome.

369 Athanaric and Fritigern, kings of the Visigoths, invade and conquer Moesia.

362-363 Valentinianus and Jovianus, commanders of the eastern field army, achieve success in invading Persia from Armenia and conquering their capital, Ctesiphon. Sassanid ruler Shapur II sues for peace. Harrassed by Persian guerrillas, the Roman army is forced to retreat. Emperor Julianus is killed in battle. Mesopotamia is surrenderd to the Persians. Valentinianus is proclaimed emperor by the army.

365 An earthquake and tsunami devastates Crete, Alexandria and Caesarea Maritimae.

Temple of Apollo Phoebus Invictus is inaugurated in Antioch.

An Edict of Toleration is issued by emperor Valentinianus I. Christian churches are reopened.

Wulfila creates a Gothic alphabet composed of letters based on Greek and Roman letters, as well as some Germanic runes.

Historia Romana is published by Aurelius Victor.

375 Accession of Valerius Valentinianus II, puppet emperor. Real power is divested in the hands of the many polytheist courtiers.

370 Law of Valentinianus and Valens bans marriages between Romans and barbarians under penalty of death.

378 Visigoths are defeated at Hadrianopolis, but emperor Valens II is killed in battle.

370 Ostrogothic kingdom is overrun by the Huns. Homeless Gothic tribes flee towards the Roman frontier. Vita Apollonii and Annales are published by Virius Nicomachus Flavianus.  
380 Quintus Aurelius Symmachus becomes Pontifex Maximus and Magister Officiorum, prime minister and teacher of Valentinianus II. (¥)

380 Visigoths are allowed to move inside the Roman Empire. They are given lands in Moesia and Thracia. Roman army consists of 450,000 men in 90 reformed legions, mostly barbarian federates and foreign mercenaries.

383 Roman troops in Britain, Gaul and Germania proclaim Magnus Maximus as emperor. He crosses over to the continent and makes Treverorum as his capital.

387 Count Theophilus Saturninus marries Galla, sister of the emperor Valentinianus II.

388 Sassanid Shah Bahram IV succeedes Shapur III.

Persecution of Manicheanism is launched in the West. A number of Manichean monks are put to death by count Theophilus Saturninus.  
392 Succession of Valerius Valentinianus III, son of Theophilus Saturninus and Galla Placidia. (†)

390 Visigoths are accepted as allies of Rome and settled in Pannonia.

392 Magnus Maximus is defeated by his rival, Vandal generalissimus (magister militum) Flavius Stilicho, who orders the strangulation of the reinstated but retarded emperor Valentinianus II and rules the Western Empire behind the child-emperor Valentinianus III

390 All Christian inhabitants of Thessalonica are massacred by a Pagan mob.

399 Sassanid Shah Yezdegerd I authorizes the Christians as a valid sect in the Zoroastrian Persia to attract Roman professionals and scholars. Many Christians migrate eastward.

Manichean preacher Priscillianus becomes martyr of his faith in Abila, Hispania.

Aurelius Augustinus converts from Manicheanism to Neoplatonism and publishes his Confessions.

Christian scholar and saint Eusebius Hieronymus moves to Ctesiphon and starts translating the New Testament into Persian.


400 Stilicho is elevated to patrician status and Consul of Rome. He rules with an iron fist. (†) 406 Vandals and Alans cross the frozen Rhine and conquer most of Gaul. 407 Britain, emptied of Roman troops by Magnus Maximus, secedes from the Empire under dux Constantius II, Rex Britanniae.

401 Aurelius Arcadius, commander of the eastern armies, allies himself with the Hunnish chief Uldin in attempt to oust Stilicho and Valentinianus III from power. (Ω)

402 Christians are exiled from Palestine. Most settle in Mesopotamia.

Sulpicius Severus tries to console Arian Christianity with contemporary Neoplatonist philosophy, publishing his Sacred History where he argues that Christian clergy should stay out of politics but Christian laypeople make good and loyal subjects of Rome. Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian sails through the Indian Ocean and travels throughout Sri Lanka and India to gather Buddhist scriptures.
  410 Visigoths settle in the Rhône valley. Saxons take Lower Germania. Vandal kingdom is established in Aquitania. 411 Constantius II is killed in battle against Saxon invaders. He is succeeded by his son, Constans, as King of the Britons. () 410 Synod of Seleucia-Ctesiphon defines the orthodoxy of the Babylonian Church.

The Isideum of Neonianus is built in Ravenna, Italy.

The Astromical Canon is published by Hypatia, leading mathematician of the Musaeum of Alexandria.

420 Death of Stilicho. A cabal of courtiers force the abdication of Valentinianus III. He refuses suicide, stating that Christian doctrines prohibited suicide. End of the Valerian Dynasty. 421 Empress dowager Aelia Galla Placidia flees to her supporter count Bonifacius in Africa to found a new Christian dynasty. Priscus Attalus, former urban prefect and leader of the aristocratic and polytheist Senate, is proclaimed emperor in Rome. 420 Valerius Leo Senex, dux oriens and founder of the Leonine Dynasty, is proclaimed emperor by the eastern field armies. Abdication of Valentinianus III collapses the entire Empire into various Imperial Remnants. (Ω) Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius publishes his Saturnalia and Dream of Scipio.  

Roman Empire - the Age of Migrations (420 - 589 CE)

Date Italy & Dalmatia Gaul, Germania & Africa Britannia Balkans, Greece & Near East Culture Asia
422 Priscus Attalus, emperor of the Imperial Remnant in Italy names young military genius Flavius Aëtius his general and successor. (¥) 423 Revolt of usurper Joannes in Gaul and Hispiania is crushed by the 27-year old Scythian magister militum Flavius Aëtius. Death of Constans. He is succeeded by Palladius as King of the Britons. () 421-422 Roman-Sassanid War. The Sanhedrin is disbanded after another Jewish revolt during the last Persian war.  
430 Death of Priscus Attalus. He is succeeded by Aëtius. () Imperial capital is moved to Ravenna. 431 Hippo Regius in Numidia becomes the capital of the Placidian Empire Remnant in Africa instead of the polytheist Carthage. 433 Second Synod of Seleucia-Ctesiphon acknowledges the teachings of Nestorius. Barsaumas becomes the partiarch of Ctesiphon and pope of the Babylonian Church. Missionaries are sent further east to India and Central Asia.

Demotic script is replaced by Coptic writing in Egypt.

Codex Valentinianus, collection of edicts of Roman law, is published.

441 Aëtius adopts general Paulinus Maximus as his successor, but Paulinus is disastrous campaign against the Vandals.

Langobards, Thuringians and Bohemians submit to Attila the Hun. Armorica secedes from Gaul and joins the Romano-British kingdom. The Burgundians create a kingdom in Upper Germania.

Cunetacius Paternus (Cunedda ap Edern) of Gwynedd, founder of the royal dynasty of Kemr, defeats Pictish and Irish invaders south of Hadrian's wall. He is proclaimed King of the Britons. (∆) 440 Huns take the provinces of Moesia and Dacia Ripenses from the Eastern Empire Remnant. Serdica is destroyed during the invasion.    

453 Aëtius is murdered by courtiers led by patrician Petronius Maximus and chamberlain Heraclius. (Ω)

457 Petronius is killed by a mob in Rome. He is replaced by Eparchius Avitus and later general Julius Majorianus. (Ω)

450 Death of empress dowager Galla Placidia. Rebellion of proconsul Honorius. Aelia Pulcheria, daughter of Galla and spouse of Sebastianus, son of Bonifacius, is proclaimed empress-regent in Africa. (†) Cunetacius secures a politically advantageous marriage to Galla (Gwawl), daughter of dux Coel of Eboracum.

451 The Huns conquer Sirmium and lay waste to Pannonia and Dalmatia. They are finally defeated by joint forces of Aëtius and the Visigoths.

457 Valerius Leo II Thrax, grandson of eastern emperor Valerius Leo I. (Ω)

460 Goths gradually take over Italy and Dalmatia; Majorianus is forced to abdicate. He is succeeded by Procopius Anthemius and then Anicius Olybrius.

464 Count Syagrius establishes Imperial Remnant in Gaul. ()

Riothamus, leader of the Romano-British kingdom. (∆) 465 Leo II tries to capture Sicilia and Sardinia and Corsica from the Placidian Dynasty, but fails. Mithraism is introduced to Ireland.  
476 King Odoacer founds the Romano-Gothic Valagothic kingdom in Italy and Dalmatia. Goths keep a policy of strict social distinction between them and their Roman subjects. Romans are drafted into the bureaucracy and employed as officials to collect taxes, but otherwise kept out of many higher positions of power.

471 Syagrius defeats Childerik, king of Franks and defends Gaul against Riothamus with Euric, king of the Visigoths. End of Frankish influence in Gaul; they are gradually Romanised.

Aurelius Ambrosius, King of the Britons. () invades Britain.

Saxons invade Britain.
474 Isaurian general Zeno Tarasicodissa succeedes ailing emperor Leo III in the East. Civil war between Zeno and Basiliscus, bother of empress Aelia Verina. Chronicon of the Leonines, a historical work covering the history of the Leoninen dynasty from 420 to 479, is published by Eugenius Sophronius  
487 Death of Syagrius. He is succeeded by Flavius Paulus. (†)   480 Dacia, Pannonia, Moesia and Greece are all devastated by the Huns.    
493 Theodoric the Great, king of Italy. 495 Death of emperor Placidius Elpidius in Africa. He is succeeded by Placidius Leontius and his son Leontianus. Romano-Britons under warlord Vortigern are defeated by Saxons. Kingdoms of Sussex and Essex are established. 491 Death of Zeno. He is succeeded by palatial official (silentiarius) Anastasius Dicorus. (Ω) Anglo-Saxon futhorc alphabet is introduced in Britain.  
  500 Burgundians capture Rhaetia and Lower Germany.

Aurelius Artorius, king of the Britons. Saxons are defeated in the Battle of Mons Badonicus. ()

Scots begin migrating to Caledonia, later known as Scotland.

506 Anastasius negotiates a peace agreement between Eastern Rome and Sassanid Persia.    
  518 Palatial official Flavius Justinus I succeeds Anastasius as emperor of the Eastern Empire, founding the Justinian Dynasty. Academy of Gundushapur is founded in Sassanid Persia.  

The Reunified Roman Empire (527 - 602 CE)

Date Emperors The West (Occidens) The East (Oriens) Culture Meanwhile in Asia
527 Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus I (Ω) 526 Athalaric, king of Italy. 527 Nicomedia is selected as the new capital of the Roman Empire and renamed Augusteia Justinopolis. Justinianus proclaims reunification of the Empire his foremost task.

Romans obtain silkworm eggs and begin silkworm cultivation.

533 General Belisarius leads a campaign of reconquest to Africa. Placidian Dynasty is defeated in the Battle of Ad Decimum, Belisarius captures Carthago. Christian emperor Placidus Dominicus capitulates in Hippo Regius, and the western Mediterranean provinces return to the Reunified Roman Empire.

534 Theodahad, king of Italy.

535 Justinianus orders Belisarius to start the reconquest of Italy. Sicily, Dalmatia and Rome are captured.

537 Artorius and Medrad of Gwynedd perish in the Battle of Camlann. Romano-British realm breaks into several sub-Roman kingdoms.

537 Temple of Holy Wisdom (Sancta Sophia) is built in Augusteia Justinopolis. Digesta and Pandectea, compendiums of Roman law, are published in Justinopolis. Western Wei Dynasty begins in China; the first ruler is Wen Di.
    Nubian kingdom of Nobatia converts to Coptic Christianity.    
550 Death of Flavius Germanus, heir apparent of Justinianus.     Temple of Fortuna Primigenia is restored in Praeneste, Italy.  
565 Flavius Justinus II (†)        
578 Flavius Tiberius II (†)        
582 Flavius Mauricius Tiberius (†)        
Usurper: Flavius Phocas, end of the Justinian Dynasty        


The Heraclid Dynasty (610 - 907 CE)

Interregnum (907 - 1368 CE)

The Luminous Romanian Empire (1368 - 1644 CE)

Date Ruler(s) Roman West Roman East Culture Asia


1368 Dominus Noster Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Lucidius Lucifer Palaeologus, Eminentissimus Augustus, Restitutor Orbis, Triumphator etc. 1368 In the middle of famine, plagues and peasant revolts sweeping across the Mediterranean, revolutionary leader Marcus Lucidius of Venetia and his rebel army seize Rome and Alexandria, claiming the purple and establishing the Luminous Roman Empire. He is wed to princess Eirene Eudokia Palaeologina. 1368 Death of Flavius Xeno, rival rebel leader from Anatolia and competitor of emperor Lucidius. His 400 ships are defeated by 300 venetian and alexandrian ships in the climatic Battle of Bosphorus. His son and heir, Heraclius Xeno, surrendered two years later to Lucidian armies in Antioch.

Death of Flavius Petrarchus, Italian scholar and poet, who coined the term "Dark Ages".

Death in Ibn Battuta, Berber scholar and traveler.

Improved movable type printing with tin metal characters invented by Wang Zheng.

Military manual Huolongjing by Jiao Yu describes advanced fire lances, rockets, land mines, naval mines, bombards, cannons and hollow cast iron cannonballs used by Chinese armies.


1373 Basilica San Vitale, originally built in 548 during the Justinian dynasty, is rebuilt in Ravenna (Italy).

1378 Schism in the Roman Church: Supporters of Urbanus and Clemens fight over the bishopric of Rome. Pope Matteus I of Alexandria settles the dispute.

1370 Timur, after completing his conquest of Central Asia and Persia, establishes the Timurid Empire, replacing the Black Sheep Turkomans as the biggest external enemy of the Empire.

Aurelian Romance, a historical novel based upon the crisis of the third century, starting in 169 and ending with the reunification of the land in 280, is published in Rome by Ludovicus Julianus. It is written partly in vernacular and partly in Classical Latin.

Jikji ("Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages"), published by Heudong Temple, becomes the earliest widely distributed metal-printed book. Printing spreads throughout Zhongguo and beyond, diffused first by emigrating Korean printers, but soon also by Han apprentices.

Trading town of Dan Ma Xi (Singapore) becomes colony of Guang.


1382 The Excubitores, a secret police organization, is established.

1397 Scandinavian Union is ratified in Kalmar, Sweden.

1380 Emperor Lucidius abolishes the Magister Officiorum, taking over direct responsibility over the three palatine secretariats, although the later Protomagisteriate would aid the emperors in managing the state.  

Song annexes the Kingdom of Dali in Yunnan, spurring a Han migration of hundreds of thousands.

1398 Dominus Noster Marcus Lucidius Gratianus II Pius Felix Augustus 1399 Following example of Norse traders, first Lusitanian navigators set out to find the New World. 1397 Corpus Iuriis Civilis is completed, yet drawing much of its clauses from the earlier Codex Justinianus of 529.   Daming Lu law code, product of Chinese Enlightenment, is adopted in Song and later Guang and Fujian. Kongfuzian examinations are replaced by a system based on certificates and recommendations.
1402 Dominus Noster Marcus Lucidius Gratus Felix Felicissimus Semper Augustus, Perpetuus Augustus

1401 Insula Fortunata (The Canary Islands) are settled.

1406 Aurelianic Walls around Rome are restored.

1408 Pons Gemmaeus is built over river Rhenus.

1402 Roman and Timurid empires fight at the battle of Kaisareia over Osroene ja Coele-Syria, resulting in Timurid victory. The Augustan Encylopaedia is completed. It is a gigantic compilation of 22,877 scrolls, designed to include all that had ever been written on the Neoplatonist canon, history, philosophy and the arts and sciences. Because of its size, only one copy was ever produced, kept in the Bibliotheca Herculeana in Heracliopolis. The conquest of Vietnam and Malay islands signals the beginning of the Guang Empire. Guang admiral Zheng He establishes first chinese colonies in India and East Africa. Beginning of the Age of Discovery.
1417 Roman navicularius Heraklonas of Cyrene discovers Hesperides and Floritania in the New World. 1415 Restoration work on the Great Nile Canal is completed.   Nestorian Christian (Jingjiao) University of Nanjing is founded by patriarch Mar Shimum III.

1424 Dominus Noster Marcus Lucidius Candidus Ingenuus Augustus

1425 Dominus Noster Imperator Titus Andronicus Pius Augustus, Triumphator Occidens

1420 After 13 years of a massive reconstruction project for a new imperial palace, the Sacrum Palatium Vaticanum, emperor Felicissimus declares Rome the new capital, while Alexandria is demoted.   Wars of religious reformation in Song between Jingjiao (Nestorian school of thought) and followers of Xin jiaotu, popular movement believeing in the imminent second coming of Christ.
1435 Dominus Noster Justinus Lucidianus Caelestinus Augustus

1430 The Little Ice Age forces abandonment of the Norse colonies Brattahlið and Garðar in Greenland.

1431 Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan is captured by Roman expedition led by Justinus Cordus Metellinus, henceforth known as Aztecius. Tenochtitlan is renamed Mexicopolis.

1431 Rasulid Dynasty of Yemen is recognized as a Roman tributary state.

1440 Moldavia and Astrakhan gain independence from the Mongol Golden Horde.

  Establishment of the Malay Tributary State by Fujian.
1449 Dominus Noster Justinus Lucidianus Aztecius Augustus 1443 The Temple of Sophia and the Aeons is completed in Rome over the ruins of Area Sacra in the Fields of Mars. The temple grounds comprise 20,000 square meters.

1445 Golden Horde Khanate defeats Novgorod at the Battle of Suzdal.

1449 Battle of Iasi. Advance guard of Mongol cavalry destroy the entire Roman expeditionary force, capturing the twenty-year old emperor Caelestinus. His brother, general Aztecius, takes up the purple and succesfully defends Heracliopolis against the Mongol Golden Horde.

  Hunminjeongeum, a native phonetic alphabet system for Korean language, is published by Sejong the Great. It is designed so that even a commoner could learn to read and write.
1457 Dominus Noster Justinus Lucidianus Caelestinus Augustus 1457 Upon his return to power, emperor Caelestinus bans all further expeditions to the New World as superfluous and not cost-efficient. Instead, Rome embarks upon a massive expansion of Roman limes along the Danube river. Colonia Mexicopolitana is evacuated.   Fall of Beijing to the Celestial Khanate in 1453 marks the end of the ancient Chinese Empire (Zhonghua).
1464 Dominus Noster Justinus Lucidianus Abeolus Novatius Augustus

1460 Death of Henricus Navigator, creator of the independent Lusitanian client kingdom in Spain.

1461 Quirinius Rebellion in Rome against emperor Caelestinus, instigated by recent purges among the military establishment.

  Guang takeover of Srivajayan. Sunda kingdom of Pajajaran surrenders to Jiangnin to counter further Guang intrusions.

Relegatio Naviculariis: All independent maritime shipping is banned by an imperial decree. Intended to curb piracy, the ban proves ineffective for that purpose, while imposing huge hardships on coastal communities.

1476 Death of Vlad III Dracul, Prince of Wallachia who led the defense of his territory against the expanding Mongol Golden Horde.


1478 Novgorod conquers Muscovy.

1479 Joint Bohemian, Hungarian and Venedic forces led by Matias Corvinus defeat Mongols in the Battle of Sibot in Transylvania.


Hunan War in China: Guang, Fujian and Wu against Song Empire and prince Ma.

Establishment of the Papuan Tributary State by the principality of Wuyue.

1487 Dominus Noster Probus III Sarmaticus Maximus Augustus 1480 Because of the sailing ban, Lusitanian client kingdom becomes the sole shipper to Floritania and Hesperides in the New World. Accession of Caesar Alfonsius Albinus of Lusitania.   Establishment of the Guang Swahili Tributaries in East Africa.
1490 Death of Matias Corvinus, king of Bohemia and Hungary.   Bronze metal movable type printing is invented by Hua Sui in Wuxi, Jiangsu.
1505 Dominus Noster Lucidius Honorius Commodus

1505 Death of Stephanus III, client king of Moldavia and leader of resistance against the Mongols.

1506 Alfonsius Albinus, creator of the Lusitanian maritime empire, sets off on his expedition to India.

1501 The Safavid dynasty takes over Persia and adopts Sufism as their official religion. Account of Buddha's life, translated as Josaphat, becomes so popular Buddha is made a Christian Saint. Guang explorers reach Brazil in the New World.
1510 Smallpox decimates native Taíno population in Hesperides. 1515 Emperor Honorius wrests Osroene from the Safavids. Roman power extends to the Arabian peninsula. De revolutionibus orbius coelestium is published in Treverorum by Venedic exile Copernicus. It fails to achieve any notice.

Mechanical engineer Zhou Shuxue build world's first mechanical clock.

1521 Dominus Noster Honorius Pacalis Commodianus 1521 Guang conquest of Qana' lead to rejection of the Guang embassy and the new emperor Pacalis demanding to return power to the loyal Roman vassal Jaballathus. Roman and Guang ships fight at the Gulf of Aden. Roman galleons are easily sunk by cannon-carrying junks.

Influenced by Platon, Cicero, Livius, Marcus Aurelius and and Livius, Florentian freedman Nicolaus Bernardus Vitellius publishes his De Imperatoribus as a guide to future emperors.

Zahir ud-din Muhammad Babur founds the Moghul Empire.

1546 Ludovicus Michael Angelus is made chief architect of the Sacrum Palatium and its temples.



1551 Danish pirates take over the Island of Man.

1558 Victory over Saxon and British pirates at North Sea.

1556 Earthquake in Syria. City of Antiochia is razed, death toll of 850,000 casualties is estimated.

1557 Guang traders establish permanent settlement in Berenice, Egypt.

1555 Collection of prophecies published by certain Nostradamus in Gaul provoke bitter response from Augustan priests and imperial astrologers. He is accused of magic and beheaded.
1566 Dominus Noster Lucidius Gratus Saturninus Augustus 1567 Relegatio Naviculariis is formally repealed. 1556 Radical Christian preacher, Pomponius Algerius, is executed by boiling oil by emperor Saturninus.
1572 Dominus Noster Romulus V Pius Felix Augustus

1576 Church of St. Marcus and the Apostoles is built in Rome, commissioned by Empress Dowager Irene Eudoxia.

1577 Saturneum, permament celebration place for the imperial treasuries, is built in Rome.

1570 Muscovia is sacked and its inhabitants are put to sword by Mongols.

1572 Emperor Romulus V forms the Sacred League as a united front against the Mongol Golden Horde.

1581 Protomagister Zosimus implements tax reform, allowing the land tax to be paid entirely in gold due to inflated currency. 1578 Ortelius of Batavia publishes the first accurate Roman atlas, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum.

First daily newspapers are published.

Physician and pharmacologist Li Shizhen publishes the Bencao Gangmu, detailing the use of over 1,800 medicinial drugs.

1593 Siege of Dùn Èideann: Battle between Romano-British alliance and Scandinavian union. Joint Roman and Kemr armies drive the Scandinavians out of Scotland.   Imjin War: Japan invades and conquers Korea.
1600 The Venedic Commonwealth is invaded by Tatars dozens of times. 1602 From this year until 1682, Jiangnin Da Qin Company ships some six million Roman glass and ceramic items to China.  

1616 Albertus Maximilianus is proclaimed emperor in Roman client kingdom of Thuringia. He allies himsef with Saxons, Bohemians and Scandinavians. Thirty Years' War starts in Europe, devastating its agriculture and bringing down the Luminous Roman Empire.

1619 Thuringian cuirassiers defeat much larger Roman army equipped with matchlock and cannon and led by Magister militum Janus Piavonius.

Chinese and Arab officials are expelled from the Office of Auspices and Astronomy in favour of traditional Neoplatonist officials who rejected Eastern Science in favour of Classical Science; by 1622 this policy was reversed. Neoplatonic Academy of Athens is restored with the financial backing of local gentry and imperial officials. The motivation for restoring the Academy is concern about the state of the bureaucracy and its inability to bring about improvement. The New Academy will became a centre of dissent for public affairs in the late Lucidian era. Chinese dictionary Zihui is published by Mei Yingzuo.

1620 Lucidius Prosperus Felicissimus Augustus

1620 Dominus Noster Lucidius Portinus Caelestianus Augustus

1627 Dominus Noster Lucidius Faustulus Magnus, Semper Augustus

1627 Death of Maximilianus. He is succeeded by Frithunantus as the emperor of the Thuringian dynasty. German invasion of Gaul; downfall of eunuch Panychus Primicerius, who has ruled over Gaul as a virtual dictator for seven years.

1628 Frithunantus is defeated in the battle of Segusio in Raetia.

1624 The Jiangnin Da Qin Company establishes Chinese rule over Berenice, Egypt.  
1632 With new additional Roman "pike and shot" banners recruited from Gaul, the full eight invincible Tercios of the Thuringian army are established. Frithunantus conquers Aquileia and Venetia. 1633 Peasant soldier Regulus Perperna mutinies with his fellow soldiers in Moesia after the government failed to ship much needed supplies there. Rebellion spreads to Asia Minor and Pannonia.  
1643 Basileus Clemens, Rex et Imperator Thuringia, Romania & Bohemia.

1644 Megadux Ambrosius Adeodatus open the gates of Rome; rebels and Thuringian prince Carolus occupy the capital. Emperor Faustulus hangs himself on the Cross of St. Peter, after hearing that rebels under Regulus Perperna had breached the gates of the Sacrum Palatium.

1640 Masses of Roman peasants are starving, unable to pay their increased taxes. Elpidius Potitius Volusianus, former exarch of Africa, organizes another rebellion against hated emperor Faustulus and his eunuch court.  

Romania Aeterna - The Thuringian Dynasty (1644 - )

Date Ruler(s) Roman West Roman East Culture Asia


  1650 Scattered Lucidian remnants are conquered by joint Thuringian, Bohemian and rebel Roman armies.   Pope Marcus VI of Alexandria visits the court of emperor Clemens in Rome.  
1661 Basileus Franciscus Carolus Caesar Leo, Rex et Imperator Thuringia & Romania 1661 On the death of emperor Clemens, his confidant Wang Lozang, a buddhist scholar and scientist, is thrown to prison and then crucified. 1662 Roman loyalist megadux Arcadius Philopator invades Egypt and defeats Guang fleet stationed at Berenice.    
    1674 Revolt of the Three Feudatories: Three imperial Exarchs appointed by German emperor Leo to govern Africa, Egypt and Mauretania revolt against the Thuringian dynasty.    
  1689 Treaty of Naissos with Kievan Rus. 1683 Battle of Heliopolis, surrender of the independent Roman state in Egypt with naval help from Jiangnin Da Qin Company.    

Religious markers:

¥ Traditional Polytheist
☼ Mithraist or Sun-worshipping Henotheist
Ω Gnostic or Neoplatonist
† Romano-Christian
‡ Eastern Christian (Babylonian Church)
∆ Celtic Trinitarianism
♀ Coptic or Mother Goddess Synchretist
§ Other (Zoroastrian or Manichean)
۩ Muslim